Windows Server, the robust and versatile operating system from Microsoft, has been powering businesses and organizations for over two decades. It's the backbone of countless networks, managing critical tasks like file sharing, security, identity, and application hosting. But for the uninitiated, navigating the world of Windows Server can be daunting. This article aims to demystify the basics, providing a comprehensive overview of its history, key features, and recent iterations.

A Brief History: From NT to Azure

The Windows Server lineage traces back to Windows NT (New Technology), released in 1993. Designed for scalability and security, NT marked a significant departure from the consumer-oriented Windows 3.1. Subsequent versions like Windows 2000 and 2003 further solidified its position in the enterprise space.

The early 2000s saw the rise of virtualization, and Windows Server adapted with Hyper-V, a built-in hypervisor that enabled running multiple operating systems on a single physical machine. Active Directory, the core identity and access management service, also saw significant advancements, becoming the go-to solution for user authentication and authorization in large networks.

Fast forward to the present, and Windows Server has evolved into a cloud-ready platform. Azure integration allows seamless hybrid deployments, extending on-premises infrastructure to the cloud for enhanced scalability and flexibility. Recent versions like Windows Server 2019 and 2022 prioritize security and automation, making it easier than ever to manage complex IT environments.

Roles and Features: Building Blocks of Functionality

Windows Server is not a monolithic operating system. Instead, it's a modular platform where administrators can choose and install specific roles and features to tailor the server to their needs. These roles add functionalities like:

These are just a few examples, and the available roles and features vary depending on the specific Windows Server edition. Choosing the right combination is crucial for building a server that meets the organization's specific requirements.

Comparing the Champions: Windows Server 2016, 2019, and 2022

With new versions released every few years, it's natural to wonder which one is right for you. Here's a comparison of the three most recent Windows Server iterations.

FeatureWindows Server 2016Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2022
Release DateOctober 2016October 2018October 2021
Support End DateJanuary 2027January 2030October 2034
Key ImprovementsContainerization support, Nano Server, Azure integrationEnhanced security features, Kubernetes integration, HCI improvementsAzure Arc hybrid capabilities, automated patching, Windows Defender ATP integration
Ideal forExisting Windows Server environments, basic server needsOrganizations seeking improved security and hybrid cloud capabilitiesBusinesses prioritizing automation, security, and modern infrastructure

Ultimately, the best version depends on your specific needs and budget. Windows Server 2016 is still a viable option for basic deployments, while 2019 offers a good balance of features and security. Windows Server 2022 is the most advanced and future-proof option, but it comes with a higher price tag and steeper learning curve.

Conclusion: Windows Server - A Powerful Platform for Growth

Windows Server has come a long way from its NT roots. Today, it's a mature and versatile platform capable of powering everything from small businesses to global enterprises. Its modularity, robust features, and continuous evolution make it a compelling choice for organizations seeking reliable and scalable network infrastructure. Whether you're a seasoned IT pro or just starting to explore the world of server administration, Windows Server offers a powerful foundation for building and managing your digital future.

Remember, this is just a starting point. Windows Server is a vast and complex ecosystem, and there's always more to learn. But with the knowledge gained from this article, you're well on your way to understanding and utilizing this essential tool for building and maintaining a robust network infrastructure.


Welcome to the intricate and fascinating world of computer networking! In today's digital age, understanding the fundamental principles of how devices connect and communicate is more crucial than ever. Whether you're a tech enthusiast, a budding entrepreneur, or simply curious about the invisible infrastructure behind your daily internet browsing, this guide will equip you with the essential knowledge to navigate the ever-expanding digital landscape.

Building the Network

Imagine a bustling city, where information flows instead of cars. A computer network is just that – a collection of interconnected devices, like computers, printers, and servers, communicating and sharing resources. These connections can be physical, utilizing cables and wires, or wireless, employing radio waves.

The Networking Crew

Just like any city needs infrastructure, networks rely on dedicated devices to keep the information flowing smoothly. Here are some key players:

Speaking the Network Language

Communication in any city requires a common tongue. Similarly, networks rely on protocols, standardized sets of rules governing data transmission. The most prominent protocol is TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), which ensures data arrives at its destination accurately and intact.

Addressing the Devices

Every device on a network needs a unique identifier, just like every house has an address. Enter MAC addresses (Media Access Control addresses), built-in hardware identifiers for network cards. Think of them as permanent ID tags for devices.

But for larger networks, like the internet, a dynamic addressing system is needed. This is where IP addresses come in. These are temporary, numerical labels assigned to devices, allowing them to navigate the vast digital ocean. Imagine them as temporary mailing addresses used during online interactions.

Keeping it Secure

Just like any city needs security measures, networks require robust defenses against malicious threats. Here are some crucial tools:

Beyond the Basics

This is just a glimpse into the vast and intricate world of computer networking. As you delve deeper, you'll encounter concepts like network topologies (the physical and logical arrangements of devices), different network types (LANs, WANs, MANs), and advanced security techniques. But by understanding these basic building blocks, you've taken the first crucial step towards navigating the ever-evolving digital landscape with confidence.

Remember, computer networking is not just about wires and protocols; it's about connecting people, devices, and information. It's the invisible backbone of our digital world, enabling communication, collaboration, and innovation. So, the next time you click, scroll, or stream, take a moment to appreciate the complex symphony of technology that makes it all possible.

Further Exploration

This guide is just a starting point. If you're eager to explore the fascinating world of computer networking further, here are some resources:

With dedication and curiosity, you can unlock the secrets of the digital maze and become a citizen of the ever-expanding connected world. Happy exploring!


Welcome to Tech Talks By Noah! In this week's tech talk we will discuss malware, and the different types of malware. Malware is prevalent in today's cyber landscape. Every week there is a new data breach in the news, most likely relying on malware to steal sensitive data from the victim. Malware is a critical part of hacker's toolset to infiltrate organizations.

There are multiple types of malware that attackers use. These types of malware serve different goals and objectives but they are just as destructive. The first type of malware we are going to discuss are rootkits.


Rootkits are a particularly nasty type of malware. Rootkits hide deep in the hard drive and load up before the operating system, preventing anti-virus from detecting the rootkit. Therefore, it is extremely hard to remove rootkits from the computer since they cannot be detected. However, there are such things as rootkit scanners that load before the operating system to detect if there is a rootkit hiding on the hard drive. These rootkit scanners are a complete anti-virus. Furthermore, some Linux based operating systems include security tools to remove rootkits and conduct drive forensics.


Viruses are one of the most commonly known types of malware. Viruses spread by attaching themselves to an executable file (such as a document) and run when the file is executed. By attaching itself to an executable a virus is able to spread quickly and efficiently. However, since a virus relies on an executable, it has less of a chance of being executed than a worm.


A worm is a type of malware that spreads through the the network. They are a self-replicating malware that spread without user intervention (unlike viruses). Worms do not need an executable file to spread, allowing them to spread easier than viruses. Worms spread quickly and often transverse network boundaries to infect areas as large as countries, or in some cases worms can infect the entire internet.

Trojan Horse

Trojan horses are a type of malware that embeds itself within another legitimate program. Which allows the trojan to masquerade itself to trick users into executing the program, thereby infecting their computer with the malware.


In this article, we covered a few types of malware that are commonly seen in the wild. By understanding the different types of malware and their functions, you can be better prepared to prevent malware infections and keep yourself cyber safe!


In the ever-expanding digital universe, where data is the lifeblood of countless interactions, the trifecta of authentication, authorization, and non-repudiation stands as the core of cybersecurity. These three pillars are the guardians of the internet, ensuring that only the right individuals access the right information. This article discusses these essential components, unraveling their significance and understanding how they collectively form an impenetrable defense against cyber threats.

What is Authentication?

Authentication is the gatekeeper of the digital realm. Imagine it as the bouncer at an exclusive club, checking IDs before allowing entry. In cybersecurity, authentication ensures that the entity attempting to access a system or data is indeed who or what it claims to be.

Why is Authentication Important?

Authentication in Action

What is Authorization?

Now that we have identified individuals through authentication, it's time to determine what they are allowed to do within the digital fortress. This is where authorization steps in, akin to granting VIP access to certain areas based on who passed the authentication check.

Why is Authorization Essential?

Authorization in Action

The Signature of Truth: Non-Repudiation

Authentication and authorization establish trust, but there is still a missing piece to complete the cybersecurity puzzle. Non-repudiation, our final pillar, acts as the notary public, ensuring that parties involved in a transaction cannot deny their actions.

Why is Non-Repudiation Indispensable?

Non-Repudiation in Action


As we conclude our exploration of the triad of authentication, authorization, and non-repudiation, it becomes evident that these pillars are not just cybersecurity buzzwords; they are the unsung heroes fortifying the digital landscape. Together, they create a robust defense against unauthorized access, ensure controlled and secure interactions, and leave an undeniable trail of truth in their wake.

In the dynamic and ever-evolving world of cybersecurity, understanding and implementing these concepts is not just a choice but a necessity. As we navigate a digital era where trust is paramount, the triumvirate of authentication, authorization, and non-repudiation remains our steadfast ally, standing guard against the rising tide of cyber threats.


So, what's availability? It's like having your favorite ice cream flavor available 24/7/365 (Yay, Cookies and Cream!). Availability in cybersecurity means your entire digital life, be it apps, websites, or cat videos, is always there for you to access and enjoy.

Why is availability so important, you ask? Well, think of it this way: when availability takes a coffee break, chaos can ensue, and people don’t get their cat videos. Imagine your go-to streaming service suddenly saying, "Sorry, not available right now." Bummer, right? Let’s dive into what availability is, exactly, and how we can ensure our digital things stay up and running.

Understanding Availability in Cybersecurity

Availability, in the context of cybersecurity, refers to the continuous and reliable access to data, systems, and services. It is a fundamental principle that emphasizes the need for digital resources to be consistently available for authorized users, free from disruptions, downtime, or malicious interference.

The Significance of Availability

Strategies to Ensure Availability

Challenges in Ensuring Availability


In the intricate tapestry of cybersecurity, availability emerges as a key component, intricately woven into the fabric of digital resilience. Its significance extends beyond mere accessibility, touching upon the very essence of organizational functionality, user experience, and the broader digital ecosystem.

As businesses and individuals navigate the complexities of an interconnected world, the concept of availability stands as a testament to the ongoing pursuit of uninterrupted access to digital resources. By adopting proactive measures such as redundancy, disaster recovery planning, and leveraging cloud technologies, organizations can fortify their defenses against the myriad threats that seek to disrupt the availability of critical systems.

In the grand symphony of cybersecurity, availability plays a defining melody—a symphony of continuous access, unwavering resilience, and the steadfast commitment to ensuring that the digital landscape remains open and accessible to all who depend on it. In embracing the principles of availability, we reinforce the foundations of a secure and reliable digital future.


In cybersecurity, the principle of integrity is key to ensuring the accuracy, trustworthiness, and consistency of data. In this article, we dive into the concept of integrity, its profound importance in the digital realm, and the strategies employed to uphold it. As a cornerstone of cybersecurity, integrity is important in protecting against the threat of data compromise.

Understanding Integrity in Cybersecurity

In essence, integrity in cybersecurity refers to the assurance that data remains accurate, unaltered, and reliable throughout its lifecycle. This includes protection against unauthorized modifications, whether intentional or accidental, that could compromise the trustworthiness of information.

The Importance of Integrity

Strategies to Uphold Integrity

Challenges in Upholding Integrity


In the intricate dance of cybersecurity, integrity emerges as a sentinel standing guard against the tide of potential manipulations and distortions that threaten the digital landscape. Upholding the accuracy and reliability of data is not merely a technical necessity; it is a testament to the ethical responsibility organizations bear in safeguarding the trust placed in them by users and stakeholders.

As we navigate an era defined by the ubiquitous nature of digital interactions, the concept of integrity takes center stage. Its significance reverberates across industries, from healthcare and finance to government and beyond. By implementing robust strategies, embracing technological innovations, and fostering a culture of security, organizations can fortify their defenses against the ever-evolving threats to data integrity.

In the pursuit of a secure digital future, integrity stands resolute—a guardian of truth in the vast expanse of data, a beacon guiding us through the complexities of cybersecurity, and a pledge to uphold the trust vested in the interconnected world we live in.


Its prevalence is astounding. A subtle form of information gathering, often unnoticed due to its subtle hacking of the human mind. Social engineering is a catch-all term for a wide variety of cyberattacks that rely on manipulating the human psyche to gain unauthorized access to privileged information. Social engineering is one of the most common information gathering tools that threat actors use to scope out a target or gain initial access by using legitimate credentials for nefarious purposes.

Types of Social Engineering

There are multiple types of social engineering. Common types include Phishing, Smishing, Vishing, Spear Phishing, Dumpster Diving, Shoulder Surfing, and Tailgating. Let's dive deeper into each of these types of attacks.

  1. Phishing
    • Phishing attacks are social engineering attacks designed to harvest user credentials or infect the recipient of these attacks with malware. Phishing attacks are most commonly conducted through email, using false pretenses such as a requested password reset, or a user support request. This allows attackers to gain access to credentials from unsuspecting users, thus giving the attackers access to otherwise protected systems.
  2. Smishing
    • Smishing is a sub type of phishing attack that is preformed over SMS (text) messaging. Attackers send fraudulent text messages purporting to be from some kind of reputable company. In these messages, attackers generally include some kind of link to a phishing site or a link to a malware site. These attacks allow hackers to gain access to user credentials such as bank account and credit card information, mobile phone carrier accounts, and authenticator accounts.
  3. Vishing
    • Vishing is type of phishing attack that relies on interactions with victims over the phone. Attackers interact with users and use social engineering techniques to gather information. Attackers then use this information to access user accounts.
  4. Spear Phishing
    • Spear phishing is a type of targeted phishing attack where the users are specifically targeted to gain access to important user account. Victims are often prominent users such as system administrators, organizational admins, etc.
  5. Dumpster Diving
    • Dumpster diving is a form of social engineering attack in which the attacker goes through an organization's trash to look for valuable documents such as financial information, Personally Identifiable Information, passwords, etc.
  6. Shoulder Surfing
    • Shoulder surfing is a form of social engineering attack where attackers look over the shoulder of the victim to gain user credentials. Attackers then use these credentials to access user accounts, or they sell the credentials on the dark web for profit. One solution to this is the use of privacy screens.
  7. Tailgating
    • Lastly, we have tailgating. Tailgating is a form of social engineering where the attacker follows legitimate users into a controlled area. In one example, attackers take advantage of the common courtesy of holding the door for people. A simple solution to this is to use mantraps/access control "airlocks".

This is just a few examples of all of the different types of social engineering. There are many more to cover. I encourage you to do some more reading on your own time.


In this article we discussed the different types of social engineering. We discussed Phishing, Smishing, Vishing, Spear Phishing, Dumpster Diving, Shoulder Surfing, and Tailgating. While there is much more nuance to the study of social engineering, this article will give you a good foundation to get started.


Personal and organizational data are currencies in their own right. Data is highly sought after by threat actors for various reasons. The overwhelming amount of data contained in organizational systems, personal systems, and the internet as a whole is staggering. Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solutions are essential tools for organizations. SIEM solutions allow security analysts to quickly analyze large amounts of network, application, and other machine-generated data which significantly improves time to triage. One SIEM solution frequently discussed in security circles is Splunk.

Today, SIEM solutions are indispensable instruments in the modern security toolset. SIEMs monitor critical infrastructure, detect anomalies, and identify potential threats – a vital first line of defense against breaches, fraud, and malicious activity. However, in this competitive landscape, Splunk distinguishes itself through its many strengths.

Splunk: Unveiling the Power of Machine-Generated Data

Splunk's core strength lies in its unique approach to data ingestion and analysis. Instead of focusing solely on security-specific logs, Splunk leverages a powerful search engine capable of indexing and interpreting machine-generated data from virtually any source – web servers, firewalls, applications, mobile devices, the list goes on. This breadth of data provides unparalleled context, allowing analysts to identify subtle patterns and correlations that might otherwise remain hidden.

Delving into Splunk's Feature Arsenal

  1. Universal Data Ingestion: Splunk's flexible architecture effortlessly ingests data from any format, eliminating the need for code heavy adaptors or integrations. This ensures comprehensive visibility across your entire IT ecosystem, leaving no corner unturned in the threat landscape.
  2. Real-Time Search and Analysis: Splunk's search engine is a marvel of speed and efficiency. Complex queries can be executed in milliseconds, granting analysts immediate insights into vast datasets. This real-time responsiveness empowers proactive threat detection and rapid incident response.
  3. Machine Learning and AI Integration: Splunk seamlessly integrates with AI and machine learning algorithms, enhancing its analytical capabilities. These algorithms learn from historical data and identify anomalies with uncanny precision, significantly reducing false positives and streamlining threat validation.
  4. Customization and Dashboards: Splunk's visual dashboards offer flexible customization, allowing security teams to tailor the platform to their specific needs. Drag-and-drop functionality facilitates the creation of personalized dashboards that display prioritized metrics, real-time threat status, and key security KPIs.
  5. Community and App Ecosystem: Splunk boasts a vibrant community of developers and users who contribute a wealth of apps and extensions. These add-ons further enhance Splunk's functionality, addressing specific industry needs and expanding its reach into diverse use cases.

Splunk: Rising Above the Competition

So, what makes Splunk stand out amongst other SIEM solutions? Several factors contribute to its leadership position:

  1. Unified Data Platform: Splunk transcends the limitations of a traditional SIEM, transforming into a unified data platform for security, operational intelligence, and business analytics. This flexibility removes the need for multiple siloed tools, streamlining workflows and reducing costs.
  2. User-Friendly Interface: Splunk's interface is intuitive and approachable, even for non-technical users. Its search language is straightforward and powerful, facilitating efficient data exploration and analysis for users of all skill levels.
  3. Openness and Extensibility: Splunk's open architecture readily integrates with existing security tools and infrastructure. This eliminates vendor lock-in and allows seamless customization to meet specific organizational needs.
  4. Continuous Innovation: Splunk is a fast-paced company dedicated to constant innovation. The platform receives regular updates, featuring new capabilities, improved functionalities, and enhanced threat detection algorithms. This dedication ensures that Splunk remains at the forefront of the ever-evolving security landscape.


In conclusion, Splunk is not simply a SIEM; it's a comprehensive data intelligence platform that empowers organizations to navigate the digital minefield with confidence. Its vast data ingestion capabilities, powerful search engine, AI integration, and user-centric design make it an invaluable asset for security teams striving to stay ahead of evolving threats. With its open architecture, thriving community, and relentless innovation, Splunk is poised to remain the shining beacon.


Welcome to Tech Talks By Noah! In today's tech talk, we will be discussing one of the components of the CIA triad. Namely, confidentiality. If you've landed on this blog post, you are probably looking for information on what confidentiality is in cybersecurity. Well, confidentiality is a key component of a core cybersecurity concept referred to as the CIA triad.

The CIA triad consists of three components. Namely, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. These three components work harmoniously to form a framework to protect an organization's assets. Let's dive in-depth into confidentiality.

Understanding Confidentiality

At its core, confidentiality is the bedrock of cybersecurity. Confidentiality ensures that every piece of data in an organization is protected from unauthorized access. It ensures that data within an organization can only be accessed by the personnel who need access to it. This is done through a few different methods. For example:

The Importance of Confidentiality in Cybersecurity

Why is the CIA Triad Important?

Implementing Confidentiality Measures

Challenges in Maintaining Confidentiality

Despite the advancements in cybersecurity, maintaining confidentiality comes with its set of challenges:


Cybersecurity is constantly changing, with hackers getting more advanced every day. By practicing good cyber hygiene, organizations can ensure their data is confidential. Confidentiality plays a huge role in protecting organizations from data leaks and breaches. Confidentiality ensures that sensitive data is not accessed by unauthorized individuals. Thank you for joining me for this tech talk. Until next time!


Intrusion Analysis is the Art of detecting intruders within secure networks and safeguarding the sensitive data stored on that network from unauthorized access. Learning intrusion analysis can be an artform within itself. The goal of this guide is to give you a stepping stone into the world of Intrusion Analysis, and to help you successfully learn the basics of that artform.

What is Intrusion Analysis?

Intrusion analysis is process of detecting and mitigating the threat of unauthorized access to an organization's secure networks. Intrusion analysis is a critical component of an organization's information systems security plan. It utilizes multiple software tools to detect, manage, and mitigate intrusions. Intrusion analysis captures traffic that traverses computer networks and activities/events that happen on endpoints.

This information is gathered via intrusion detection systems and OS/application log files. These log files and IDS alerts (usually stored in a IDS log file) are often aggregated into a single database and analyzation tool known as a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system. SIEM systems and various network and endpoint monitoring tools are a quintessential (and powerful) combination to detect and manage threats.

How to Analyze Intrusions

Intrusion analysis follows a very methodical approach, similar to a forensic investigation:

  1. Incident Detection: The intrusion analysis process is kickstarted when a intrusion attempt alert is received (usually in a SIEM solution via network or endpoint security solutions). The network/endpoint security solutions will detect attempted malicious activity and push out an alert to the SIEM system to notify an incident responder/security analyst for review.
  2. Data Gathering: Once the incident response process is triggered, analysts comb the network and hosts for any shred of evidence that indicates an intrusion or data leak. Logs, network traffic, system memory dumps – every digital crumb becomes crucial evidence.
  3. Timeline Reconstruction: Intrusion analysts carefully construct a timeline of the attack. This timeline is key in determining the extent of the attack and what kind of information the attackers stole. Time becomes the canvas.
  4. Root Cause Analysis: The hunt for the smoking gun – the vulnerability exploited, the malware utilized, the attacker's tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs).
  5. Containment and Mitigation: The clock is ticking. Analysts race to contain the damage, neutralize the threat, and patch vulnerabilities to prevent further harm.
  6. Reporting and Learning: Sharing the intel is key. Analysts document their findings, identify lessons learned, and update defensive strategies for future battles.

Tools of the Trade: Unmasking the Arsenal

Just like any detective needs their magnifying glass, intrusion analysts rely on sophisticated tools:

Beyond the Binary: The Faces of Intrusion Analysis

The field of intrusion analysis is a bustling ecosystem, home to diverse roles and specialties:

Charting Your Path: Certifications for Aspiring Hunters

Intrusion analysis isn't just a thrilling career, it's a specialized domain demanding expertise and credentials. Several certifications can pave the path for aspiring analysts:

The Marriage of Minds: Malware Analysis and Intrusion Analysis

Like Holmes and Watson, malware analysis and intrusion analysis are partners in crime-solving. Malware analysis delves into the malicious code itself, understanding its workings, capabilities, and potential targets. This intel feeds directly into intrusion analysis, providing crucial context for understanding the attacker's intent and methods.

By analyzing malware samples identified during an intrusion, analysts can:

This symbiotic relationship between malware analysis and intrusion analysis is crucial for comprehensive threat assessment and effective incident response. Malware analysts act as the code breakers, deciphering the attacker's secret language, while intrusion analysts utilize this knowledge to paint the bigger picture, map the attack landscape, and ultimately, safeguard the digital perimeter.

Beyond the Battlefield: The Societal Impact of Intrusion Analysis

Intrusion analysis isn't just about protecting individual organizations. It has far-reaching societal implications, playing a vital role in:

Joining the Hunt: What Makes a Great Intrusion Analyst?

So, what qualities make a great intrusion analyst? Beyond technical expertise, several key skills are essential:

The Call to Arms: A Future Full of Challenges and Rewards

Intrusion analysis is a demanding yet rewarding field, offering constant intellectual stimulation and the opportunity to make a real difference in the fight against cybercrime. As technology advances and cyber threats become increasingly sophisticated, the need for skilled intrusion analysts will only grow. So, if you possess the analytical mind, the investigative spirit, and the unwavering dedication to protecting the digital world, consider joining the hunt. The future of intrusion analysis is full of challenges, but also endless possibilities for those who dare to face the darkness and bring the light.

Remember, intrusion analysis is not just a profession; it's a calling. It's about standing guard against the unseen threat, safeguarding the digital frontier, and ensuring a safer future for all.

This blog post serves as a starting point. Further research into specific certifications, tools, and career paths is highly recommended. And lastly, keep in mind that the world of intrusion analysis is constantly evolving, so staying updated with the latest trends and threats is paramount.

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